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 Instruction for Authors

1. General Guidelines
Annals of Clinical Neurophysiology (ACN) is the official journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Neurophysiology, published twice a year on April 30 and October 31 in English. ACN (formerly Korean Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology) was launched in 1999, and publishes scientific and creative research papers in clinical neuroscience and clinical neurophysiology supporting all of the academic fields of clinical neurology. Manuscripts submitted to ACN should be prepared in accordance with the following instructions. ACN follows the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication (http://www.icmje.org/urm_main.html), commonly known as the Vancouver style, except where described otherwise below.

2. Types of Manuscript
This journal publishes full-length original papers, case reports, letters to the editor, invited reviews, images in clinical neurophysiology, and other articles commissioned by editorial board.

3. Research and publication ethics
This journal adheres to the research ethics guidelines of The Korean Society of Clinical Neurophysiology and also to the ethical guidelines for research and publication described in “Good Publication Practice Guidelines for Medical Journals” (http://kamje.or.kr/) and “Guidelines on Good Publication” (http://publicationethics.org/files/u7141/1999pdf13.pdf). The editor-in-chief has the right to reject a manuscript if research misconduct is suspected. When violation of the publication ethics related to a paper published in this journal is detected, the authors will be announced in this journal and their institutes will be informed, and there will also be penalties for the authors.

3-1. Conflicts of Interest
The corresponding author must inform the editor-in-chief of any potential conflicts of interest that could have influenced how the authors have interpreted the data. Examples of potential conflicts of interest are financial support from or connections to pharmaceutical companies, political pressure from interest groups, and academic-related issues. In particular, all sources of funding applicable to the study should be stated explicitly.

3-2. Authorship
Authorship inclusion should be based on (1) substantial contributions to the study conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and (3) final approval of the version to be published. All of the listed authors should meet these three conditions. The corresponding author should (1) be responsible for all communications with this journal from submission to publication, (2) keep co-authors informed and involved during the review process, and (3) correspond with members of the scientific community after the manuscript has been published. The specific role (e.g., data collection, financial aid, statistical treatment, or research analysis) of the research contributor must be stated explicitly. The author should notify the person that their name will be on this list, and receive approval prior to submission.

3-3. Redundant Publication and Plagiarism
A submitted manuscript must not be associated with any type of research misconduct, including fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism with intent to deceive by the authors. The cover letter to the editor-in-chief must declare that a submitted manuscript has not been published nor is under simultaneous consideration for publication elsewhere in whole or in part in any language, except in the form of an abstract. The cover letter must also state if the manuscript contains any portion that may be regarded as redundant or duplicate information, defined as a paper, data, tables, or figures that overlap substantially with already published information.

3-4. Research Involving Humans and Animals
Research involving human subjects must comply with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki (1964). Articles describing research involving humans and animals must state in the Materials and Methods that the work was approved by the applicable institutional ethics committee or review board. The manuscript must also state that informed consent was obtained from the subjects, where applicable.

3-5. Gender Ethics
We encourage researchers to enroll women and different racial groups into clinical trials of all phases, and to plan to analyze data by sex and by race.
For all study types, we encourage the correct use of the terms sex (when reporting biological factors) and gender (when reporting identity, psychosocial, or cultural factors).
Where possible, report the sex or gender of the study participants, and describe the methods used to determine sex or gender.
Separate reporting of data according to demographic variables (e.g., age and sex) facilitates the pooling of data for subgroups across studies and should be routine, unless this is inappropriate.
Discuss the influence or association of variables (e.g., sex or gender) on your findings, where appropriate, and the limitations of the data.
If the study was done involving an exclusive population, for example in only one sex, authors should justify why, except in obvious cases (e.g., prostate cancer). Authors should define how they determined race or ethnicity and justify their relevance.

4. Peer Review Process
All submitted manuscripts will be initially evaluated by more than two experts in accordance with the review and revision guidelines of The Korean Society of Clinical Neurophysiology. The acceptance criteria for all papers are based on the quality and originality of the research and its clinical and scientific significance. The corresponding author will normally be informed of the initial editorial decision about acceptance within 4 weeks of the Editorial Office receiving a manuscript, and he/she will also be sent the reviewers’ comments. Revised manuscripts must be submitted by the corresponding author. The corresponding author must indicate the alterations that have been made in response to the reviewers’ comments on an item-by-item basis. Failing to resubmit the revised manuscript within 8 weeks of receiving the initial editorial decision will be regarded as a withdrawal.

5. Review and Publication Fee
All manuscripts except articles commissioned by the editorial board may be charged a prescribed review fee and a publication fee. The costs of special printing requirements and publishing extra issues will be charged to the authors.

6. Copyright
All published papers become the permanent property of The Korean Society of Clinical Neurophysiology, and must not be published elsewhere without written permission. A copyright transfer form should be submitted to the editorial office through electronic submission system (http://submit.e-acn.org) upon acceptance.

7. Online Submission of Manuscript
ACN offers a web-based manuscript submission and peer review system at http://submit.e-acn.org. Please review the instructions at that website carefully and take note of the further instructions provided at the top of the screen in each step. Submit your manuscript and all figures exactly as instructed in order to avoid a processing delay or failure. For assistance, please contact us via e-mail (acn.journal@gmail.com), telephone (+82-10-3396-7312), or fax (+82-82-55-214-2638).

Supplemental Data
Supplemental Data is content that the authors wish to make available online if the paper is accepted for publication. This is currently confined to video files.

8. Manuscript Preparation
Annals of Clinical Neurophysiology (ACN) offers a web-based manuscript submission and peer review system at https://submit.e-acn.org/. Please review the instructions at the website carefully and take note of the further instructions provided at the top of the screen in each step. For assistance, please contact us via e-mail (acn.journal@gmail.com), telephone (+82-10-3396-7312), or fax (+82-82-55-214-2638).

8-1. General Style
The manuscript must contain a title, Abstract, main text, references, tables, and figure legends. The main body of the manuscript and all tables included in your submission must be provided in Microsoft (MS) Word format. The text must be written in double-spaced 12-point font, preferably in Times New Roman on A4-sized (21.0×29.7 cm) paper with a minimum of 2 cm margins on each side. The right margin should not be justified (i.e., left-justification only). Abbreviations should only be used for terms that are used at least twice, and should be defined separately on first use in the Abstract and main text. All values should be expressed in SI units (The International System of Units). The page number should be indicated in the middle of the bottom of each page from the title page onwards. Do not submit the manuscript with automatic formatting features (e.g., when using EndNote, remove field codes before submission).

8-2. Cover Letter
The cover letter accompanying the manuscript must specify the type of manuscript and include statements on ethical issues and conflicts of interest, and provide complete contact information for the corresponding author.

8-3. Author Information Page
The author information page should be uploaded as a separate file and it should contain all of the following information: title of the manuscript, the full names of all authors and their affiliations where the work was performed, a running title (less than 50 characters including spaces), and the contact information for the corresponding author including the complete postal address, telephone number, fax number, and email address. When there are multiple authors with multiple affiliations, these should be indicated using numbers as superscripts in the order of appearance (e.g., 1, 2, 3).
Acknowledgements, sources of funding, and any conflicts of interest should be stated on this page under the applicable subheading.

8-4. Title
The title of the paper must be provided on the first page of the manuscript. The author names should not appear on this page.
This page should contain the title, running title, number of characters of the title, number of words in the manuscript (excluding references, tables, and figure legends), number of figures, and number of tables.

8-5. Abstract
The Abstract must appear on a separate page and should be written. All original articles must include an Abstract that does not exceed 250 words, and be organized into Background, Methods, Results, and Conclusions. Between three and six keywords should be provided at the bottom of the Abstract. Keywords can be selected by referring to the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) published on the website of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/)

8-6. Main Text
The main body of the manuscript must be prepared under the following subheadings: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, and Discussion. For each paragraph, (1) do not indent the first line, (2) ensure that it is separated from the previous paragraph by an additional vertical space, and (3) do not include any new-line or new-paragraph marks (except at the end of the paragraph). Although there is no set limit for the length of original articles, it is highly recommended that they be no longer than 4000 words excluding the Abstract, tables, figure legends, and references. In the Introduction, state the purpose of the research in a concise and clear way, and only include details regarding the background that are related to the purpose. In the Materials and Methods, describe the materials (or subjects) and the methods in detail. The sources of the each apparatus or reagent used should be provided in detail: name of the company and its city, (state, for US-based companies), and country location. Articles describing research involving humans and animals must state in this section that the work was approved by the applicable institutional ethics committee or review board. The manuscript must also state that informed consent was obtained from the subjects, where applicable. The methods used for statistical analysis and criteria for statistical significance should also be described. The Results should be presented in a logical sequence, in terms of the text, tables, and illustrations. Do not repeat all of the data in the tables or figures in the text; instead describe only important points and trends. In the Discussion, observations pertaining to the results of the research and other related materials should be interpreted for the reader. Emphasize new and important observations, and do not simply repeat information that is already provided in the Introduction or Results.

8-7. Acknowledgements
If necessary, persons who have made substantial contributions but who have not met the criteria for authorship can be acknowledged in this section.

8-8. References
The references should be cited in the main text using Arabic numerals as superscripts (e.g., 3,7,10–12) that are numbered in the order cited. In the References section, the references should be numbered in their order of appearance in the text and listed as separate pages. There is no upper limit for the number of references in original papers, but this should preferably not exceed 40. List all of the authors when they are six or fewer; when there are seven or more, list only the first six and add “et al.”. If an article has been published online but has not yet been allocated issue or page numbers, the digital object identifier (DOI) should be supplied. Journal titles should be abbreviated in the style used in Index Medicus. Other types of references not described below should follow The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK7256/). Do not reference papers that have not been accepted for publication; instead, these can be specified as unpublished data in the body of the text. Personal communications should only be mentioned in the main text. The EndNote reference style for ACN is specified on the homepage of this journal (http://www.e-acn.org).

Sample References
1) Journal articles:
Lee KS, Choi IS. A clinical study of brain tuberculomas based upon 20 case records. J Korean Neurol Assoc 1985;3:241–253.
Senderek J, Müller JS, Dusl M, Strom TM, Guergueltcheva V, Diepolder I, et al. Hexosamine biosynthetic pathway mutations cause neuromuscular transmission defect. Am J Hum Genet 2011;88:162–172.

2) Book:
Wyllie E. The treatment of epilepsy. 2nd ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1997;97–98.

3) Book chapter:
Calne CB, Duvoision RFC, McGeer E. Speculation on the etiology of Parkinson’s disease. In: Hassler RG, Christ JF, eds. Advances in neurology. 2nd ed. Vol. 40. New York: Raven Press, 1984;353–360.

4) Online publication:
Scheidl E, Böhm J, Simó M, Rózsa C, Bereznai B, Kovács T, et al. Ultrasonography of MADSAM neuropathy: focal nerve enlargements at sites of existing and resolved conduction blocks. Neuromuscul Disord 2012 Apr 16. [Epub]. DOI:10.1016/j.nmd.2012.03.005

5) Online resources:
Leiden Muscular Dystrophy Pages©. Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy [Internet]. Leiden, Netherlands: Center for Human and Clinical Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center; c2012 [accessed 2012 Jun 6]. Available from: http://www.dmd.nl/ Neuromuscular Home Page. Chronic immune neuropathies: demyelinating [Internet]. Washington (MO, USA): Neuromuscular Disease Center, Washington University; c2012 [accessed 2012 Jun 7]. Available from: http://neuromuscular.wustl.edu/antibody/pnimdem.html

8-9. Tables
Each table should be included as an MS Word table in order to ensure correct column alignment. Cite and number tables in the order they are mentioned in the text. There should be no more than five tables. Use horizontal lines only above and below column headings and at the bottom of a table; do not use vertical lines. If a nonstandard abbreviation is used in a table or a description is necessary, this information should appear as a table footnote annotated using superscripted lower-case letters (e.g., a, b, c) to the right of the part that needs explanation.
The significance of observations, as determined by appropriate statistical analyses, should be indicated.

8-10. Figures
Cite figures in numerical order (e.g., Fig. 1, Fig. 2) as they appear in the text. Figures must be submitted as separate files saved in JPEG, TIFF, EPS, or PPT format (do not embed the figures in the MS Word manuscript file). Each image should have at least the following resolution: 600 dpi for line art (an image composed of lines and text), 300 dpi for halftone (a continuous-tone photograph that contains no text), or 600 dpi for combined line art and halftone. Photographs of recognizable persons should be accompanied by a signed release from the person or his/her legal guardian authorizing publication. Legends for figures must appear on a separate page at the end of the manuscript file.

The complete cost of reproducing color images will be charged to the authors. All color figures will be reproduced in full color in the online edition of the journal at no cost to authors.

8-11. Articles Other Than Original Manuscripts
The following types of articles are also accepted: invited review, editorial, case report, brief communication, letter to the editor, controversies in clinical neurophysiology, and images in clinical neurophysiology. The general guidelines for these publications follow those for original articles, except as described below.

Invited Review
An invited review is a contemplation focusing on a certain topic decided by the editorial board and published after the proofreading process. The Abstract is limited to up to 250 words. An invited review does not have a structured format. Commissioned articles are reviewed by the editorial board.

Special Articles
This category consists of articles that highlight and discuss issues of special interest to the readership. Special Articles will be written by leaders in the research community of clinical neurophysiology, pain, and autonomic medicine.
In addition, one of the committees of Korean Society of Clinical Neurophysiology or Korean Society of Pain & Autonomic Disorders will be invited as the author or group of authors of special articles.
These special articles are commissioned by the Editors.

The editor-in-chief or members of the editorial board may present their opinions on articles published on the same volume and number of this journal. An editorial should be written with a title and text comprising no more than 400 words. Only one author is listed. There can be only one table or figure, and no more than five references.

Case Report
The Abstract of a case report should be no more than 80 words. Up to three keywords should be listed. The main text should be no more than 1,000 words. In the main text, first describe the general background and significance regarding the case with no subheading. The case and its related results are described under the subheading of “Case”, and authors’ opinions and speculations are described under “Conclusion”. There should be no more than three tables and figures, and no more than ten references.

Letter to the Editor
Constructive criticisms and opinions on certain articles published in this journal within the last 6 months are accepted. The text is limited to 800 words, with no more than five references.

Images in Clinical Neurophysiology
Images in clinical neurophysiology include image materials with very unusual or rare features in the field of clinical neurophysiology. There can be up to 2 authors, with 300 words of text, 1 figure, and 3 references. No Abstract is required.

8-12. Authorʼs Role
List all authors along with their specific roles in the project and preparation of the manuscript.

8-13. Financial Disclosures
All submissions require financial disclosure of all authors. A statement that documents all funding sources and potential conflicts of interest from each author that relate to the research covered in the article submitted must be included on this page, regardless of date. This material will be printed with the published article.

8-14. Submission of Video
Any audio or video files for abstract or full text should be submitted after acceptance. Any kinds of audio file formats that support the HTML5 audio format are accepted including mp3, wav, or ogg. The video file formats that support HTML5 video are accepted including mp4, webM, or ogg.

※ Contact Information of The Editor-in-Chief
Ki-Jong Park
Department of Neurology, Gyeongsang National University Changwon Hospital,
11, Samjeongja-ro, Seongsan-gu, Changwon-si, Gyeongsangnam-do, Republic of Korea
Tel: +82-10-3396-7312
Fax: +82-82-55-214-2638
E-mail: acn.journal@gmail.com

※ Delegation
Other items that are not stated on this guideline follow the decision of the editorial board.

※ Supplementary Provisions
1) This guideline enforces from September 14th, 2001.
2) This guideline enforces from June 10th, 2008 (modification).
3) This guideline enforces from January 1st, 2012 (modification)
4) This guideline enforces from July 1st, 2013 (modification)
5) This guideline enforces from December 1st, 2016 (modification)
Editorial Office
Department of Neurology, Gyeongsang National University Changwon Hospital,
11, Samjeongja-ro, Seongsan-gu, Changwon-si, Gyeongsangnam-do, Republic of Korea
TEL : +82-10-3396-7312    FAX : +82-82-55-214-2638   E-mail: acn.journal@gmail.com
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