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Ann Clin Neurophysiol > Volume 1(2); 1999 > Article
Ann Clin Neurophysiol. 1999; 1(2): 286-290.
Electrophysiologic Evaluation of Blepharospasm
Jae-Myun Chung
Copyright © 1999 The Korean Society of Clinical Neurophysiology
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Blepharospasm is the condition in which there is involuntary closing of the eyelids due to sustained, forced dystonic contraction of orbicularis oculi (OO) muscle. So called apraxia of lid opening (ALO) is another condition of involuntary eyelid closure which is suspected to be originated from the involuntary levator palpebrae (LP) inhibition. Clinically it is difficult to differentiate blepharospasm and ALO, and these two conditions are sometimes associated. This fact makes it difficult to predict and evaluate Botulinum A toxin injection treatment outcome. These disorders of involuntary eyelid closure are thought to have disturbed normal antagonistic activities of OO and LP, so electrophysiologic evaluation using synchronous EMG recording of LP and OO helps understanding the antagonistic activities of these two muscles and the origin of varying forms of eyelid movement disorders, and analysing the cause of unsatisfactory response to the Botulinum A toxin treatment.
Key words: Involuntary eyelid closure, Blepharospasm, Apraxia of lid opening Electromyography
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